DANCES: Liiving with the Eastern Cherokees about 1887,
1888, Wm.Gilbert tells of the era, and what it had become at that time.
"The next... social feature is the dance... some... have fallen
into disuse. The following are dances known: Ant, Ball, Bear, Beaver,
Buffalo, Bugah, Chicken, Coat, Corn, Eagle, Friendship, Green Corn,
Ground Hog, Horse, Knee Deep, Medicine, Partridge, Pheasant, Pigeon,
Raccoon, Round, Snake, War, and "Woman Gathering Wood"...
"In most of the dances both men and women participate, but only
men are allowed to lead and to do the singing for the dancers. A few
dances are confined to one or the other sex.
"Most dances are led by a singer who has a drum
or gourd rattle in his hand and who may or may not participate in the
motions of the dance. The rank and file of the dancers, who follow the
leader in a single file, may accompany the singing of their leader,
or they may finish out his initial phrases, or they may reply in antiphony.
A woman with tortoise-shell rattles fastened to her legs generally follows
immediately after the leader and keeps time for his singing by shaking
the rattles on her legs in rhythmic sequence.
"The musical instruments used in the dance consist
of (1) a groundhog skin drum, (2) one or more gourd rattles on short
sticks, and (3) several tortoise-shell rattles bound about the legs
of the woman leader.
"Various ornamental and characteristic features are introduced
in the dances, such as pine boughs, sticks, eagle-feather wands, pipes,
masks, and robes of various kinds" (in the olden days).
"The dances are usually held at night. Certain
dances are given early in the early part of the evening and others are
relegated to the hours after midnight... The Friendship Dances may continue
all night as may also the Ball dances. The general order of the evening
dances is for a Bugah Dance to precede an Eagle Dance after which may
come a Friendship Dance.
"...Somewhat after midnight, at about 2 o'clock
in the morning, there commences another series of dances known as tendale
Nuda or 'different dances'. These are also called uskwiniye'da or 'every
kind' from the word for a general store. These dances generally run
in about the following order: Coat, Ground Hog, Corn, Knee Deep, Buffalo,
Ant, Quail, Chicken, Snake, Raccoon, Bear, Horse, and finally, the Round
Dance after full daylight has come.
"Dances may be given in the daytime. The Green
Corn Dance is given at any time during the day but is never ended until
after dark. After a morning Round Dance... the new day may be started
with another Eagle Dance or perhaps by a game of women's football.
"Some dances should be given only at certain seasons. In the recent
past if the Eagle, Bugah, or Snake Dance were given in the summer, snake
bite or cold weather would be sure to follow. The proper time for these
dances is the frosty season from November to March. It is thought that
the disappearance of the old-time conjurers may have something to do
with the fact that these dances can now be given with impunity in the
"Although dances can, in the main, be held either
out of doors or in the house, the majority are now held indoors...."
"The number of song accompaniments to a given
dance may range from 1 to 14 but the average is about 4. A song consists
of an individual melody sung with a series of more or less meaningless
words or syllables, consisting of terms for obsolete towns and places,
unintelligible onomatopoetic phrases, and the like. In the Friendship
Dances considerable scope may be given to the improvising of syllables
and melodies and in the course of several hours as many as 40 or 50
songs may be sung. In the main the syllables and the accompanying melodies
seem to be somewhat stereotyped except that vowel quality of the syllables
seems to vary in the numerous repetitions. The average duration of a
single dance with its 4 songs and their repetitions may be from a quarter
to a half an hour.
"A roughly alternate order of slow and fast melodies
seems to be maintained, with the faster tempos seeming to predominate
toward the end of the dance. The steps used in dancing do not vary perceptibly
from dance to dance and consist of simple rhythmic walking steps in
time with the drum or rattle. In fast time a sort of quick hopping motion
develops. In the Bugah Dance any kind of a step may be allowed. Much
dancing is done with the upper parts of the body, especially the arms,
shoulder, and head.
"All kinds of conventionalized and naturalistic
motions accompany the dances. Except in the cases of the Green Corn
Dance and the Ball Dance, most of the dances have lost all significance
in connection with outside activities or occurrences. True, hunting
methods and habits of various animals are simulated as well as the movements
of sowing seed and tillage of the soil. But these motions are incidental
and apparently lost in a maze of other less explicable movements. The
basic motif of the dances as they are at present performed seems to
be the social one of a good time and making acquaintances.
"Clapping of the hands is a common feature of
the Friendship Dances. This action expresses the joy and happiness being
experienced by the participants. Bears are thought to clap their hands
when pleased. The enjoyment of the dance was so great in the past that
whenever some family had lost a member by death the rest of the neighbors
would give a dance to make them forget their sorrow." (Gilbert,
Timberlake, about 1762-5, writes: "The Inds. have
a particular method of relieving the poor, which I shall rank among
the most laudable of their religious ceremonies, most of the rest consisting
purely in the vain ceremonies, and superstitious romances of their conjurors.
When any of their people are hungry, as they term it, or in distress,
orders are issued out by the headmen for a war-dance, at which all the
fighting men and warriors assemble; but here, contrary to all their
other dances, one only dances at a time, who, after hopping and capering
for near a minute, with a tommahawke in his hand, gives a small whoop,
at which signal the music stops till he relates the manner of taking
his first scalp, and concludes his narration, by throwing on a large
skin spread for that purpose, a string of wampum, piece of plate, wire,
paint, lead, or any thing he can most conveniently spare; after which
the music strikes up, and he proceeds in the same manner through all
his warlike actions: then another takes his place, and the ceremony
lasts till all the warriors and fighting men have related their exploits.
The stock thus raised... is divided among the poor. The same ceremony
is made use of to recompence any extraordinary merit. This is touching
vanity in a tender part, and is an admirable method of making even imperfections
conduce to the good of society." (Timberlake, 92,93)
"In the Friendship Dances the young people get acquainted. There
is a great amount of teasing and joking of relatives occurring at these
dances in particular. The young men will scratch the young girls' hands
with their fingernails, slap them or feint blows at them, poke at them,
or otherwise tease these familiar relatives. For the older people the
word "Friendship" attaching to these dances, signifies the
renewal of the pleasures of their youthful experiences in love and social
"In the Eagle Dance and in the Friendship Dance the leader or principal
performer can tell a story as he dances. He may perhaps recount his
conquests over women or his acquiring of great wealth. He will never
fail to get in some jibes at his joking relatives while he sings.
"The gotogwaski, or 'caller' is the organizer
of a dance occasion and it is he who calls off the names of those who
are to lead each song step. At the end of a song he shouts out words
of encouragement and applause. He always endeavors to pick the best
and strongest singers as leaders. The leader starts to walk around in
a circle singing his song and followed at first only by one or two old
men. Other men join the circle and then the woman with rattles on her
legs and finally a vast number of girls, boys, men, and women are circling
around at a faster and faster rate. After the song ends the whole group
makes a wild dash for the door and fresh air.
"Since the dances of the Cherokees are of extreme
importance in the social integration .. it will be in point to briefly
mention the outstanding characteristics of the remembered dances, especially
those whose social function seems more strikingly important than others.'
"The Ant Dance (daksu dali) consisted
of a snakelike procession in single file, the participants moving about
like a colony of ants. Both men and women participate but the men do
all of the singing and the singing leader dances with a gourd rattle
in his hand. The leader sings about the ants and says that their grandmothers
"The Ball Dance (dundje-la Nuni)
is performed in two parts, one by the men and the other by the women.
The men go to water both before and after a ball game. The men's dance
consists of a procession of the players about the fire, racquet in hand,
singing some four songs. The singing leader has a gourd rattle in his
hand and dances at the head of the line. Simultaneously with the men's
ball dance, or perhaps in its intermissions, the women give their dance.
The details of this dance are very important and are worth considering
at some length.
"The male singer seats himself facing the town
which the team is to play against and takes his drum in his hands while
the seven women dancers line up in a row behind him. Then, as the drummer
begins to sing, the women dance forward and backward. Only the first
and last songs are danced, the others consist in merely singing to the
accompaniment of the leader. After each song the drummer will give some
derogatory remarks about his familiar clansmen in the opponent town,
saying that their town is bound to lose in the coming game. Then the
women may likewise make up jokes about their clans-persons in the opponent
town. After one drummer is tired, another will take his place and joke
his fellow clansmen of his own clan in the opponent town. The magical
rite concludes with the whole group "going to water" for certain
lavations and purifications. This joking of the opponent town has the
apparent effect of magically weakening the opponent town and causing
them to lose the coming game. This is one of the most striking correlations
of magical potency with relatives of familiarity imbedded in the kinship
system to be found. Fuller reference to the possible significance of
this rite in connection with other magical establishments of familiarity
will be made in the discussion on integration and extension of social
principles to magic and myth.
'The Bear Dance (yo na)is an important
dance given after midnight. Men and women both take part in this dance,
which requires the use of gourd and tortoise-shell rattles. The general
course is a spiral motion by a group in single file about the fire or
pot or whatever can be made to serve as the center of revolution. Various
obscene familiarities are indulged in between relatives in this dance,
especially between the men and the women. The words of the songs refer
to the bear's habits.
"The Beaver Dance (doya) is mimetic of the beaver
hunt. Each dancer carries a small stick about 2 feet long, and this
stick is flourished in various manners. The principal feature of this
dance is an animal skin, meant to represent the beaver, which is pulled
back and forth on a series of strings and which the dancers attempt
to hit. Missing the skin affords immense amusement to the participants
and spectators alike and this is consequently a favorite dance.
"The Buffalo Dance is hardly remembered.
Masks and skins were said to have been used in this dance,
which was mimetic of the hunt of buffalo.
"The Bugah Dance (Booger Dance) (tsunaguduli)
is a masked dance of particular social significance. The name is of
obscure origin but the actors in the dance are called Bogeys or sometimes
Buggers. Considerable paraphernalia and preparation are necessary for
this dance. From 6 to 12 masks made of gourd, wood, or pasteboard are
collected beforehand in the neighborhood as well as 6 or 10 gourd rattles
and a ground-hog skin drum. From all of the women present one man, the
organizer, collects shawls, wraps, or sweaters to clothe the bogeys
"Six men seat themselves at one side of the room, a drummer of
leader with five assistant music makers holding gourd rattles. These
persons are known as dininogiski 'callers', whose function it is to
sing and call the bogeys. When the callers have completed their sixth
song, the bogeys enter one by one, concealed by masks and various wrap-around
materials, and hobbling in various comical positions and with odd motions.
They wear the strangest make-ups and endeavor to do everything in a
'There are seven of the bogeys and as the seventh song
is played they dance in a circle about the room and endeavor to scare
those children who are ungilisi or digiDuDu relatives to them. They
also tease the grown-ups who are their familiar relatives. The relatives
and spectators in the room enjoy this game of guessing which of their
familiar relatives the teaser is.
"At the end of the seventh song the bogeys seat
themselves in a comical fashion and with clumsy gestures on a log at
one side of the room. The interpreter or organizer, meanwhile, is asked
by the head caller to put some questions to the bogeys. The first question
is generally, 'What is your name', or 'Where do you come from?' The
interpreter then goes up to the first bogey and repeats this question
to him. To this the bogey gives a whispered reply and the name he gives
himself is always either ludicrous or obscene. He gives as his place
of origin some remote or fanciful locality. He may joke a familiar relative
in a neighboring town by giving his name. After the initial questions
are over, the first bogey gets up ludicrously and clowns in a dance
all his own. Duyring the dance the music maker or chief caller calls
the name of the bogey over and over again and the bogey goes through
motions and gestures appropriate to the name which he has given himself.
The steps of this solo dance are utterly unlike any other Cherokee dance
and consist of a series of heavy hops in rhythmic time. When the first
bogey is through, the whole thing is gone over again with the next one
and so on down the line.
"Following this the interpreter asks the bogeys
to do a bear dance together. This is done and then the audience joins
in with the bogeys. As the dance proceeds the bogeys tease their familiar
relatives, especially the women, in obscene and ridiculous ways. After
this dance the bogeys leave and go to some remote field where they remove
their disguise and slip home without being recognized. After the bogeys
are gone, the audience generally begins a friendship dance.
"The Bugah Dance is one of the most extremely
used occasions for the display of the joking and privileged familiarity
relationships between relatives. The bogeys may even tease and joke
each other if they are in the correct relationship. The crazy movements
of the Bugah solo dance may imitate everything except the motions of
white peoples' dances. The bogeys themselves may imitate white people,
negroes, or joking relatives.
"The next dance, the Chicken Dance, (sata'ga)
has not been given for some time in Big Cove. The principal feature
of this dance consisted of the woman resting one of her feet on the
foot of her male partner in the dance, and hopping with the other foot.
This dance was said to have been the cause of much jealousy and fights.
The Chicken Dance is possibly mimetic of a bird habit.
"The Coat Dance (gasule'na) is
apparently of little significance, now. In the older days the men were
said to have bought their brides with buckskin coats as payment and
in this dance some motions are made of covering or 'claiming' a woman
with the coat.
"The Corn Dance (se'lu) is apparently mimetic
of the actions of planting corn. The women were said to have done the
planting and the men to have followed with the hoe to cover the seeds
with earth. The term adan wisi 'they are going to plant corn' is possibly
allied with the dance called 'Yontonwisas' by Mooney (1900, pp 365-367)
and may be the Corn Dance.
"In the Corn Dance the men cup their hands as
if they were pouring corn grains into the aprons of the women and then
the women reciprocate in giving the corn to the men. Various other arm
movements take place between the sexes in this dance.
"The Eagle Dance (tsugi'dali)
is probably the most important and most revered of the Cherokee Dances.
The eagles were said to have gathered together and teased each other
just as men do in the Eagle Dance. The Eagle Dance used to be held in
the fall or winter when the eagles were killed but now it is held at
any time. In addition to the function as a celebration of the killing
of an eagle, the Eagle Dance has several subordinate elements such as
the Scalp Dance which celebrates victory in war (Mooney, p 496) and
the Peace Pipe Dance which celebrates the conclusion of peace. The chief
function of the Eagle Dance at the present time is the celebration of
victory in the Ball Game.
"In its present-day performance, all of the elements
of the Eagle Dance are somewhat mixed together. The Scalp Dance is a
solo dance in which the young man can dance and tell his story, vaunting
his bravery before the women or other men. He derogates the deeds of
his clan brothers and joking relatives, saying that they are cowards
and of no value to the nation. When the derogated relative's chance
comes, he in turn derogates the former singer.
"The rather elaborate ceremonial involved in killing
and propitiating the eagle which preceded the Eagle Dance has been described
by Mooney. At present, dances can be given without killing an Eagle.
There, are, in all probability, totemic values attaching to the Eagle.
"The Friendship Dances (di'sti)
are a mixed assemblage of a large number of dances whose primary significance
is shared in common, namely the social intercourse which is necessary
for the young people in order that they may find husbands and wives
among potential relatives.
"The familiarities of the Friendship Dances consist of such actions
as the men placing their hats on the heads of their female partners,
putting their coats around them, putting their arms around their shoulders
and necks, and performing various overhand movements with them and others.
These are the dances for getting acquainted and all of the motions of
the dance are designed, or appear to be designed, to break down shyness
and reserve on the part of the young people. This reserve is broken
through, however, strictly along the line of the familiarity relationship
with specific relatives. It is impossible, or in general improbable,
that a young man will tease or joke with a women of his father's clan,
or even of his own clan. On the other hand if he finds a 'grandmother'
(gilisi) or a 'grandfather' (giDuDu, ginisi) he can tease them to the
extreme. It is most likely that he will tease the women rather than
the men as privileged familiarities between men are reserved for other
occasions. At the dance a man must find a wife and there is only one
way to find a wife and that is to select her out of the group of women
with whom he can carry on relations of familiarity.
"The typical Friendship Dance begins with a few
of the older men moving around in a circle about the room. The woman
with the tortoise-shell rattles on her legs joins in the circle and
then come the older women followed by the younger men and women. Round
and round the circle goes, gradually picking up speed and volume as
more join and none leave the magic ring of dancing humanity. Finally
the crowd becomes too great for the one small room, the heat and sweat
becomes too much, the dust too choking, and so with a final whoop all
rush forth into the open air.
"Aside from certain features, such as a stygian
smell of old tobacco permeating the air and the constant spitting, the
Friendship Dance is one of the most fascinating features of Cherokee
life. This dance holds a gripping power as great as any opera in our
own society, for its drama and music are the prime expression of the
socially significant facts of Cherokee existence. In the renewal of
their old-time mating memories the older people find their chief consolation
as age advances. In the sex glamor of the occasion the young people
find their chief recreation. In the general cheerfulness of the atmosphere
generated those who mourn for deceased relatives may find forgetfulness.
"The Green Corn Dance (agohundi)
is an all-day dance which takes place in September after 'Roasting Ear's
Time'. The name given to this dance refers to a town where, according
to tradition, this dance was given especially well. This occasion has
no direct connection with the Corn Dance, except that the latter celebrates
the planting of the corn, while the Green Corn Dance celebrates the
"The Green Corn Dance is really a composite of several other dances.
First, there is an all-day dance by the men in which guns are fired
at intervals of half an hour to make the noise considered essential
to this dance. Secondly, there are three evening dances -- a Grandmother
Dance by the men, a Meal Dance by the women, and a Trail-Making Dance
by both sexes.
"The all-day dance is the essential celebration
of the completely successful harvest. The Grandmother and the Meal Dances
are mimetic of the preparation of the corn meal by the women and grandmothers,
and the Trail-Making Dance, as its name implies, mimics the activities
of fixing up the trail for next year. After the dancing is over, a big
feast is held in the evening, and everyone eats in great plenty of the
fruits of the harvest.
"Now follow three dances of no great social importance.
The Groundhog Dance (ogonu) is not of any great importance
now. The motions of the dance are highly conventionalized and not significant.
The Horse Dance (sogwili) is imitative of the marching
and prancing movements of the horse. The dancers move slowly back and
forth in a row, occasionally giving a kick as a horse will do. The
Knee Deep Dance (dustu) is a short dance named after a little
frog which appears in March is the time of the Spring known as 'Knee-deep
"The Medicine Dance (egwa nuwati)
appears to have virtually disappeared. It is of considerable significance,
however, in connection with the familiarity relationship. This dance
appears to have been held after the leaves had fallen into the streams
in October. This mixture of the virtues of the leaves with the water
caused the people to believe that the river was a gigantic medicine
pot whose boiling was evinced in the eddying and foaming of the water.
So this became "Great Medicine" time, the period in which
life renewal and protection from all disease could be secured by bathing
in the stream.
"A mixing of actual medicine in pots occurred
at this time also. While the pot boiled all night, the women and men
used to dance to keep awake, and then in the morning they went to bathe
in the stream for purification. The long hours of the night used to
be passed in joking each other's 'grandfathers' (digiDuDu) and 'grandmothers'
(digilsi). This joking became the main feature of the dance. The women
were said to have taken the initiative in joking the men at this dance.
If the men were shy, the women would catch them and force them to dance.
"The Patridge or Quail Dance (k.gwe)
is a dance somewhat resembling the Horse Dance and supposed to be initiative
of the movements of the quail.
"Similarly of little importance, the Pheasant
Dance (tadisti) has completely vanished but it is remembered
that the drumming of the pheasant was imitated during the course of
the dance (Mooney, 290)
"The Pigeon Dance (wayi) was
an important dance in the past and numerous efforts are made to revive
it from time to time. The actions seem to be mimetic of the stalking
and capture of a flock of pigeons by a sparrowhawk. One strong man represents
the hawk and he is painted red on the face, wears feathers, and is naked
to the waist. He carries a buckskin in one hand and stands in a dark
corner awaiting the line of dancers representing pigeons. As they pass
him he swoops down and captures one with the buckskin. He then retires
to his corner only to swoop down on another one and so on.
"The Raccoon Dance (kuli) is also lapsing. It
was mimetic of the capture of the raccoon in the tree where he has taken
refuge. Some of the motions of the dance indicate joking of the women
by the men as in the Bear Dance. The men pretend to rub the grease of
the raccoon on the women, the grease being an adorning feature.
"The Round Dance (ade'yohi) is a farewell dance
which finishes an all-night series of different dances. It is said that
this dance refers to the people having to go around the mountains in
going home. The first half is a woman's dance but the men join in the
SCALP DANCE: "This dance, common to every tribe
east of the Rocky mountains, was held to celebrate the taking of fresh
scalps from the enemy. The scalps, painted red on the fleshy side, decorated
and stretched in small hoops attached to the ends of poles, were carried
in the dance by the wives and sweethearts of the warriors, while in
the pauses of the song each warrior in turn recited his exploits in
minute detail. Among the Cherokee it was customary for the warrior as
stepped into the center of the circle to suggest to the drummer an improvised
song which summed up in one or two words his own part in the encounter.
A new 'war name' was frequently assumed after the dance... " (Mooney,
"The Snakelike Dance (inadiyusti)
consists of spiralings by the line of dancers about the fire.
"The War Dance (daNowehi)has
not been given for a long time. It was said to have consisted of various
military deployments backward and forward and about the fire, all imitative
of the scouting and engagement of actual warfare. There was a magical
significance attaching to this dance since it determined which warrior
would come back safely of those who went to war.
"The Woman Gathering Wood Dance (adohuna)
was once regarded as preliminary to all the other dances. It is apparently
mimetic of, or at least connected with, the women's gathering wood to
feed the fire. The movements are mostly back and forth movements by
a row of women, the men taking no part.
"This list concludes the series of dances known
in the village of Big Cove. In this area the old-time methods of dancing
have been remembered and carried on the longest, by universal testimony.
Nevertheless, a considerable interest in dancing and
periodic indulgence in the characteristic Cherokee dances was found
at Birdtown. Several additional dances are known in Birdtown which seem
to be lacking in Big Cove. These are: The Witch Dance (skili),
in which the performers imitate goggles on their eyes with the use of
their fingers; The Gagoyhi Dance (curled up, or twisted),
whose evolutions resemble the Ant Dance; and the Parched Corn
Dance (gawicida iteu), which was an additional part of the
Green Corn Dance.
William K. Powers, author of "Here Is Your Hobby
Indian Dancing and Costumes": writes of the current "Powwow"
scene: "Many dances are held in conjunction with rodeos and state
fairs. ...But these dances are strictly for show. They give Inds. an
opportunity to travel and meet dancers from other tribes, but they little
resemble a true Ind. celebration.
"Between performances, Inds. spend their leisure time visiting
each other's campsites, trading, and swapping songs. Song swapping is
a favorite pastime.
"At night, when the shows are over and the spectators
have left the grandstand, the Inds. gather in the empty stadium or fairgrounds
and dance for their own amusement. Here the fancy "show" dancing
gives way to the round dances, rabbit dances, forty-nines, the partner
dances... Costumes are replaced with western-style clothing. Except
for the strange patterns of dancing and the exotic sounds of the drum
and singers, the dancers might be taking part in an old-fashioned square
dance. These informal dances begin in the darkness of the night, and
they hardly ever end before the sun comes up." (Powers, 13).
"In the Southwest, a Navajo sings to the rhythm
of his horse's hoofs as he rides along. At home, his wife sings a soft
lullaby to her son. In the Pueblo villages nearby, a silversmith fashions
age-old designs in silver as his hammer taps out the rhythm of the song
he sings. ...In the north woods, a Chippewa sings as sacred song as
he prays to Gitche Manito. In the olden days, a Sioux sang a death chant
as he rode into battle"
"The Ind. courts his woman with a love song, cures his sick with
a medicine song, and names his children with an honor song. He never
ceases to sing whether happy or sad, young or old, well or ailing. From
birth to death, the Ind. sings.
"Indians can sing without dancing, but they cannot
dance until they hear an appropriate song. ...To the Ind. singing is
as much a part of the dance as are the dancer's moccasins and bells.
For every dance, there is an appropriate song. No dancer can move while
the singers are idle. It is the voices of the men and women that makes
the dancers want to dance. The dancers hear a good song, and their feet
are forced to move. The singers actually control the dancers."
"Their several dances were accompanied by music
appropriate for the occasion. At the war dance a warlike tune was sung
telling "how they will kill, roast, scalp, beat and make Captive,
such and such numbers of them, and how many they have destroy'd before.
At the peace dances the song related that the Bad Spirit made them go
to war and that it should never do so again, but that their sons and
daughters should intermarry with the former enemies and the two nations
should love one another and become as one people. When the harvest had
ended and before spring planting, there were the corn dances (the one
to return thanks to the Good Spirit for the Fruits of the Earth, and
other to beg the same blessings for the succeeding year". (Rights,
POWERS, WILLIAM K. "Here Is Your Hobby: Indian Dancing and Costumes".
G. P. Putnam's Sons, NY 1966. This book tells you, with illustrations,
about the basicdances, and dance steps. It is basic, but thorough. Goes
into Posture; Head Movements; Shoulder and Torso Movements; Hands, and
Style. The costumes are straight out of Hollywood, but that's what they
are wearing today on the "circuit". Yuk!